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An efficient and effective financial system is a necessary condition for the effective functioning of a nation’s economy. The issue of bank distress has been a reoccurring ill in the Nigerian banking system for some time now. This research work ‘The Impact of Bank Distress on the Nigerian Banking Habit’ has the objective to examine the impact bank distress has on the Nigerian banking habit as well as customers perception towards bank distress. The methodology employed in this research is the primary data, which was obtained through the use of questionnaires and using the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS,) ANOVA method was used to analyse the data and test the hypotheses, and the secondary data which was obtained from the CBN Annual Reports. After testing the hypotheses, it was asserted that distress in the Nigerian banking sector has impacted negatively on the Nigerian banking habit, non-performing risk assets contributed to the distress in the Nigerian banking industry and some political and institutional factors are responsible for the bank distress in the Nigerian banking industry. The recommendation made from this project is that Nigerian banks should endeavour to present or publish a true and fair view of their annual financial statement and audit report as this would go a long way in restoring the confidence of the Nigerian banking public and that regulatory bodies should be more diligent in their assignments to prevent decadence in the banking sector.














1.1       Background of the Study

1.2       Statement of Research Problem

1.3       Objectives of the Study

1.4       Research Questions

1.5       Research Hypothesis

1.6       Scope of the Study

1.7       Significance of the Study

1.8       Research Methodology

1.9       Definition of Terms



2.1       Introduction

2.2       Brief History of Banks in the ‘80s and ‘90s

2.3       Major Players in the Banking Financial Sector

2.3.1    Banks

2.3.2    Central Bank of Nigeria

2.3.3    Other Regulatory Bodies

2.3.4    Investors

2.3.5    General Public

2.4       Banking Today (Pre-consolidation Era)

2.5       Banking Crises in Nigeria

2.6       Concept of Bank Distress

2.7       Overview of Bank Distress

2.7.1    Symptoms of Bank Distress

2.7.2    Causes of Bank Distress

2.8       Effect of Bank Distress in Nigeria

2.9       Effect of Bank Distress on the Nigerian Banking Habit

2.10     Bank Audit

2.11     Bank Regulatory Agencies

2.11.1 Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN)

2.11.2. Nigerian Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC)

2.11.3 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

2.11.4 Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC)

2.11.5 National Drug and Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA)

2.11.6 Debt Management Office (DMO)

2.12     Banking Today (Post-consolidation Era)

2.13     Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Prudential Guidelines

2.13.1 Regulatory Issues

2.13.2 International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS)

2.13.3  Asset Management Company of Nigeria (AMCON)



3.1       Introduction

3.2       Research Hypothesis

3.3       Research Design

3.4       Population

3.5       Sample Size and Sampling Technique

3.6       Data Collection Method

3.6.1    Sources of Data

3.6.2    Instrument of Data Collection

3.6.3    Questionnaire Design and Assumptions

3.7       Method of Data Analysis

3.8       Validity and Reliability of Instrument



4.1       Introduction

4.2       Presentation of Primary Data Collected

4.3       Analysis of Questionnaire Data

4.4       Hypothesis Testing

4.5       Reliability Statistics

4.4       Analysis of Secondary Data Collected



5.1       Summary of Findings

5.1.1    Theoretical Findings

5.1.2    Empirical Findings

5.4       Recommendations

5.5       Conclusion





Table 4.1: Sex                                                                                                                                50

Table 4.2: Marital status                                                                                                                50

Table4.3: Age                                                                                                                                 51

Table 4.4: Educational qualification                                                                                     51

Table 4.5: Occupation                                                                                                                    52

Table 4.6: Working Experience                                                                                                     52

Table 4.7: I am aware of the term bank distress?                                                                     53

Table 4.8: I have lost money to a bank or heard of someone who has?                                        53

Table 4.9: I lost some of my confidence in banks thereafter?                                                       54

Table 4.10: My dealings and activities with banks were affected?                                               54

Table 4.11: I have a bank account?                                                                                       55

Table 4.12: My bank account is mainly for transactionary purpose?                                         55

Table 4.13: My bank account is mainly for safekeeping of my money?                                       56

Table 4.14: I would rather invest my money than keep it in the bank?                                         56

Table 4.15: If I hear that my bank is distressed, I would attempt to withdraw all my money from the bank immediately?                                                                                                                   57

Table 4.16: Regular payment of claims to insured depositors in the event of bank liquidation would go a long way to restoring public confidence?                                                                   58

Table 4.17: Non-performing credit facilities contributed to the bank distress?                          58

Table 4.18: Overdue payment of principal and interest on term loans contributed to the bank distress?                                                                                                                                  59

Table 4.19: Bank distress can be caused by an ‘out of order’ account in respect to overdraft and cash credit?                                                                                                                      60

Table 4.20: Non-performing assets can affect the operation of the bank?                                 60

Table 4.21: Too many non-performing assets can stretch a firm’s reserves and deposits making it face the risk of distress?                                                                                                      61

Table 4.22: All credit facilities offered by the bank should be closely monitored from initiation to finalization to prevent them from becoming ‘non-performing’?                                                    61

Table 4.23: Political unrest and turbulence affects the banking industry?                                 62

Table 4.24: Various policies, sanctions and standards put in place by the Central Bank and the Nigerian Deposit and Insurance Corporation in recent times have helped curb certain risks of distress faced by banks?                                                                                                       62

Table 4.25: Testing of Hypothesis 1                                                                                        63

Table 4.26: Testing of Hypothesis 2                                                                                        64

Table 4.27: Testing of Hypothesis 3                                                                                        66

Table 4.28: CBN Annual Report (1)                                                                                              67

Table 4.29: CBN Annual Report (2)                                                                                              68







FIG 4.1: Total Assets of Deposit Money Banks                                                                   68

FIG 4.2: Growth Rate of Total Assets of Deposit Money Banks                                         68

FIG 4.3: Total Deposit Liabilities of Deposit Money Banks                                                70

FIG 4.4: Growth Rate of Total Deposit Liabilities of Deposit Money Banks                      70


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